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Chapter 13

1.     When someone involved in a high-risk sport suffers an accident and dies, others in that sport often talk     of how the deceased failed to take adequate precautions.   Why?
         a.     This explanation enables others to continue in the sport while not focusing on the inherent dangers of the activity.
         b.     This explanation allows others to continue with the sport realizing that an accident could also happen to them.
         c.     This explanation allows others to rethink the sport and consider ways to improve upon its safety.
         d.     This explanation prevents others from thinking about the individual, so they can continue to focus on the activity and its dangers.

2.   When society lacks sufficient resolve to correct unsafe conditions, such negligence raises questions about a parallel between the resulting “accidental” deaths and
         a.     apathy.
         b.     homicide.
         c.     suicide.
         d.     disease.

3.   What is a common shortcoming of disaster relief efforts?
         a.     They lack adequate financial support.
         b.     They provide for physical needs, but are indifferent to the emotional needs of survivors.
         c.     They provide short-term support during the emergency, but neglect the long-term consequences of a disaster.
        d.     They fail to understand the affected communities and thus tend to make mistakes that complicate recovery.

4.  In about what percentage of all murders in the United States is a gun used?
         a.     25%    b.  45%    c.  65%    d.  85%

5.  Which of the following items is NOT matched correctly?
         a.     murder: the deliberate intentional killing of another human being
         b.     voluntary manslaughter: the killing of another human being in performance of a public duty or in self-defense
         c.     involuntary manslaughter: the unintentional killing of another human being as a result of criminal negligence
         d.     noncriminal homicide: the killing of another human being involving no gross negligence

6.  In a study of more than 300 homicides in a major American city, it was found that
         a.     the more affluent the victim, the more likely the killer would be punished.
         b.     the more violent the method of killing, the more likely the killer would be punished.
         c.     the more intimate the relationship between killer and victim, the less likely the killer would be punished.
         d.     the more affluent the killer, the less likely the killer would be punished.

7.  A person who kills a member of his or her family is usually judged by society to be
         a.     not as threatening as someone who kills a stranger.
         b.     not responsible for the act due to insanity.
         c.     subject to the same code of justice as anyone else.
         d.     a major threat to the public at large.

8.  Evidence from psychology and behavioral therapy indicates that capital punishment is
         a.     an exception to the notion that killing solves problems.
         b.     an effective deterrent for criminal behavior.
         c.     the strong penalty needed to make the criminal justice system work.
         d.     not an effective deterrent to murder.

9.  The text states that studies show violence is reduced when
         a.     early curfews are adhered to.
         b.     social interaction is kept at a minimum.
         c.     handgun laws are enforced.
         d.     communities work together to create a safe and orderly environment.

10.  Genocide involves the effort to
         a.     determine the biological roots of violence.
         b.     destroy an entire nation or human group.
         c.     eradicate social practices that favor violence.
         d.     modify genetic factors that cause violence.

11.   According to studies by the International Red Cross, what percentage of casualties in modern warfare are civilians rather than military combatants?
         a.     20 percent    b.  40 percent    c.  70 percent    d.  90 percent

12.   In his classic work, On War, Karl von Clausewitz, defined war as
         a.     hell.
         b.     the continuation of political policy by other means.
         c.     a condition of hostilities between two opposing forces.
         d.     a struggle between two nations where lives are lost.

13.  According to the analysis by Sam Keen, before a nation actually goes to war it must have
         a.     political propaganda that causes it to view the other nation as an enemy.
         b.     a large army ready and willing to fight.
         c.     a legitimate complaint against the enemy nation.
         d.     political propaganda that examines all of the alternatives to combat.

14.  The first cases of AIDS were reported in
          a.     1970.    b.  1976.    c.  1981.    d.  1989.


 ____     15.     When disaster warnings are issued in a timely and efficient manner, people will respond to the
                         threat in a prudent fashion.

____     16.        Involuntary manslaughter is a type of criminal homicide.

____     17.        Most terrorist actions occur spontaneously and involve very little prior planning.