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Chapter 3
    Perspectives on Death: Cross-Cultural and Historical

    1.     A common theme in origin-of-death myths is that death
     A)     comes from outside oneself.      C)     is a punishment.
     B)     comes as a teacher.                    D)     is the result of a transgression.

     2.     In many traditional societies, death is believed to occur
     A)     because human beings are biologically programmed to die.
     B)     because of unnatural causes, such as a malign or evil influence.
     C)     as an intrinsic part of human development.
     D)     mainly as a natural phenomenon to make room for those who are still living.

     3.     In traditional societies, whether grief is expressed by loud wails or quiet tears, there is a common tendency to
     A)     have a deep respect for the spirit or soul of the dead.
     B)     never speak about the deceased.
     C)     appreciate the continuing cycle of birth and death.
     D)     shun the dead.

     4.     Historically, the Christian concept of heaven has been an important feature of attitudes toward death in Western culture.   According to the text, how have Western attitudes toward gaining heavenly salvation changed?
     A)     In the early medieval period people believed salvation came from prayer and sacrifice; later they believed salvation came from acts of charity toward others.
     B)     In the early medieval period people believed salvation was gained by one's life work; later they viewed salvation as a gift from God.
     C)     In the early medieval period people believed salvation was gained by strict adherence to the Church's commandments; later they believed faith in God was needed for salvation.
     D)     In the early medieval period people believed salvation came through the good graces of the Church; later they believed salvation was gained as a result of one's own conduct in life.

     5.     Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the statements in the text regarding death in the twentieth century?
     A)     With the advent of technology and science, death has become a challenge to be overcome and defeated, never to be accepted by the dying.
     B)     As society becomes more materially oriented, people have little time or interest in being with the dying or grieving the dead.
     C)     With the dying removed from sight and cared for by professionals, death, dying, and grieving lack community supports.
     D)     Within a pluralistic society, there are no longer any prescribed norms for handling death, dying, and the grieving process.

     6.     In the Middle Ages, a person's impending death usually did NOT represent a time to
     A)     receive absolution.                 C)     call the mortician.
     B)     gather friends and family.      D)     pardon wrongdoing.

     7.     The structure containing the bones and skulls of deceased Christians and typically found either within or near a church is called a
     A)     charnel house.    B)  bone house.    C)  cemetery.    D)  sanctuary.

     8.     In tracing the history of Western culture, grave markers and effigies of the dead are indications of increasing
     A)     humanitarianism.    B)  secularism.    C)  individualism.    D)  technology.

     9.     In general, the traditional attitude toward death of Native Americans can be characterized as one of
     A)     eager anticipation.    B)  fear.    C)  indifference.    D)  reverence.

     10.     African communion with the "living dead" is often referred to as
     A)     funeral rituals.    B)  mourning calls.    C)  ancestor worship.    D)  death calling.

     11.     El Día de los Muertos, the Mexican Day of the Dead, blends Catholic, Spanish, and Indian rituals.  This celebration exemplifies an attitude toward death that
     A)     views death in an open and often ironic manner.
     B)     perceives death as an incomprehensible phenomenon.
     C)     perceives death as the final chapter of a person's existence.
     D)     views death as the ultimate test.

     12.     In Japanese funeral rituals, which of the following rites are NOT held?
     A)     The family invites Buddhist priests to the home and prayers are said.
     B)     The belongings of the deceased are buried with the body.
     C)     The body is cremated and the ashes are placed in an urn.
     D)     The deceased receives a special "Buddhist name."

     13.     Which of the following is generally NOT a purpose served by death rituals?
     A)     They teach children that death is to be feared.
     B)     They serve as a transition of the deceased to some afterlife state.
     C)     They reincorporate the community after its loss of the deceased.
     D)     They serve to assist the bereaved in the grieving process.

     T     F     14.     Most cultures deal with death and dying in a similar manner.

     T     F     15.     Burial customs reflect a society's attitude toward its dead.

     T     F     16.     The Lakota battle cry, "It is a good day to die," expresses the belief that death is a natural process.

     T     F     17.     The way a generation within a culture copes with death is entirely created by that generation.